Legal Rulings Concerning Menstruation

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By Dr. Salih Al-Fawzan

Menstruation is the stream of a sort of pure blood from the womb at particular occasions. This stream of blood happens each month for six or seven days, and the interval could final for kind of than that. In different phrases, a lady’s menstrual interval could final for a fewer or greater than seven days relying on the totally different nature of every lady as predetermined by Allah.

 Allah, Exalted be He, says:

“And they ask you about menstruation. Say, ‘It is harm, so keep away from wives during menstruation. And do not approach them until they are pure. And when they have purified themselves, then come to them from where Allah has ordained for you. Indeed, Allah loves those who are constantly repentant and loves those who purify themselves.’” (Qur’an: AI- Baqarah: 222)

Rulings Stated within the Noble Qur’an and the Sunnah Concerning Menstruation

It is prohibited for a menstruating lady both to carry out prayer or observe fasting.

1. Performing Prayer and Fasting

It is prohibited for a menstruating lady both to carry out prayer or observe fasting. This is as a result of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) mentioned to Fatimah Bint Abu Hubaysh:

“Give up prayer when your menstrual period begins.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Thus, the prayer and fasting of a menstruating lady are deemed invalid, because the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) has prohibited that. And the Prophet’s prohibition means it’s invalid to carry out what he has prohibited. Therefore, a lady who performs such acts of worship in that state of impurity is taken into account to be disobedient to Allah and His Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace).

May ladies make up for the missed prayers and days of fasting?

When the menstrual interval is over, a lady has to make up for the missed days of fasting in accordance with the juristic consensus, with out making up for the prayers she has missed. ‘A’ishah (Allah be happy along with her) mentioned:

“When we menstruated during the life of Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace), we used to be commanded (by Allah’s Messenger) to make up for the missed days of fasting, but we were not ordered to make up for the missed prayers.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

What else is prohibited for a menstruating lady?

It is impermissible for a menstruating lady to make tawaf (circumambulating the Ka’bah), to recite the Noble Quran*, or to remain in a mosque. In addition, it’s prohibited for her husband to have sexual activity along with her till her interval is over and she or he takes a ritual bathtub. Allah, Exalted be He, says:

“And they ask you about menstruation. Say, ‘It is harm, so keep away from wives during menstruation. And do not approach them until they are pure. And when they have purified themselves, then come to them from where Allah has ordained for you…” (Quran: Al-Baqarah: 222)

 

The phrase “…keep away from wives during menstruation” means to not have sexual activity with them inside that interval. The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) additionally mentioned:

“You can do everything (with your wives during menstruation) except sexual intercourse (or ‘copulation,’ as in another version).” (Related by the Group of Compilers of Hadith besides Al-Bukhari)

A  husband of a menstruating lady could get pleasure from her by kissing, touching, and the like, aside from having sexual activity along with her.

What is the authorized ruling on divorce throughout menstruation?

Likewise, it’s impermissible for the husband of a menstruating lady to divorce her earlier than her menstrual interval is over, as Allah says;

“O Prophet when you [Muslims] divorce women, divorce them at [the commencement of] their waiting period…” (Quran: At-Talaq: 1)

That is, after they turn out to be pure (from menstruation, sexual activity, and so forth.). Also, the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) ordered a person who had divorced his spouse throughout her menstrual interval to take her again and to divorce her (if he insisted) when her interval was over.

What should a lady do after the tip of her menstrual interval?

Once the menstrual blood stops discharging, a lady turns into pure and her menstrual interval is deemed over. She should then take a ritual bathtub. After that, she is allowed to do no matter acts of worship which have been prohibited for her throughout menstruation.

What is the authorized ruling on secretion and yellowish discharge?

After blood stops discharging, a lady doesn’t need to be involved about any secretion or yellowish discharge. The following hadith helps this. On the authority of Umm ‘Atiyyah (could Allah be happy along with her) who mentioned:

“We never considered yellowish discharge as a thing of importance (as menstruation)”

Al-Bukhari and different compilers of Hadiths associated the above talked about hadith. Moreover, it’s deemed a marfu’ (Traceable) hadith, for the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) accredited of its content material.

When could ladies begin performing prayer?

If the discharge of a lady in a state of menstruation or postnatal bleeding stops earlier than sundown, she should carry out each the Dhuhr (Noon) and the ‘Asr (Afternoon) Prayers of the same day. Likewise, if the discharge stops before dawn, she must perform both the Maghrib (Sunset) and the ‘Isha’ (Night) Prayers of the identical evening. This is as a result of the time of prayer for the latter is a permissible time of prayer for the previous in case of a authorized excuse. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (could Allah have mercy on him) mentioned:

“So, the vast majority of students, equivalent to Malik, Ash-Shafi’i and Ahmad view that if a menstruating lady’s discharge stops on the finish of daytime, it’s compulsory for her to mix performing each the Dhuhr and the ‘Asr Prayers of the identical day. Also, if the discharge stops on the finish of the evening, it’s compulsory for her to mix performing each the Maghrib and ‘Isha Prayers of the identical evening. This is as a result of there’s a authorized frequent specified time for each two successive prayers to be mixed attributable to a authorized excuse.

To make clear, if a lady’s discharge stops on the finish of the day, it’s compulsory for her to carry out the Dhuhr Prayer earlier than the ‘Asr Prayer, for it’s nonetheless a permissible time to carry out the Dhuhr Prayer, i.e. she remains to be on the specified interval of the Dhuhr Prayer. Likewise, if that was on the finish of the evening, it’s compulsory for her to carry out the Maghrib and the ‘Isha Prayers, as she remains to be on the specified time of the Maghrib Prayer. This ruling was narrated on the authority of ‘Abdur-Rahmdn, Abu Hurayrah, and Ibn “Abbas.”

What is the authorized ruling if a lady don’t carry out prayer on the very starting of its specified time and her interval arrives earlier than she will carry out it?

If a lady begins discharging earlier than she will carry out an compulsory prayer at its particular time, the preponderant opinion is that she is just not required to make up for such a prayer after her discharge stops. In this respect, Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (could Allah have mercy on him) mentioned:

“The opinion of the Hanafi and Maliki Schools is probably the most cogent; as they keep {that a} lady is just not required to make up for such a missed prayer after her discharge stops. This is as a result of making up for such a prayer necessitates a brand new authorized command, and there’s none on this case. Her delay of prayer is predicated on a authorized excuse, so she is to not blame, because the delay is just not out of negligence.

If a Muslim oversleeps or forgets to carry out a prayer at its due time, although it isn’t out of negligence, the time of prayer begins for him when he will get up or remembers. Thus, his prayer is just not thought-about a approach of creating up for a missed one.”

*: Some students maintain the opinion {that a} menstruating lady could learn the Gracious Quran. However, she could not contact or maintain the Mus-haf (a written or printed copy of the Quran) with naked arms, particularly, she will put on gloves or learn from a smartphone, and so forth. Narrated `Aisha:

I used to be menstruating after I reached Mecca. So, I neither carried out Tawaf of the Ka`ba, nor the Tawaf between Safa and Marwa. Then I knowledgeable Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) about it. He replied, “Perform all the ceremonies of Hajj like the other pilgrims, but do not perform Tawaf of the Ka`ba till you get clean (from your menses).” (Al-Bukhari)

The article is an excerpt from the creator’s ebook “A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence” with some modifications.

Dr. Salih Al-Fawzan is a Professor of Islamic Jurisprudence, Member of the Board of Senior Ulema & Member of the Permanent Committee for Fatwa and Research.

 

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